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Components of the Automotive Powertrain

Jan 04, 2023      View: 514

1. What is the Car Power System


The power system of a car is the whole process of mechanical arrangement in which the power generated by the engine is transmitted to the wheels through a series of power transmissions. 

The engine runs, in fact, the crankshaft is rotating, and one end of the crankshaft is fixed with a flywheel, which cooperates with the clutch to control the connection between the flywheel and the transmission. After the power is shifted by the transmission, the power is transmitted to the differential through the two universal joints and the transmission shaft, and the power is divided equally by the differential to the reducer of the wheels on both sides, and transmitted to the wheels through the double curve gear of the reducer.


Aerodynamically speaking, the power principle of the car is like this: a car in the exercise, will cause an inevitable impact on the relatively static air, the air will therefore flow around, and leap into the air flow under the car will be temporarily trapped in the various mechanical parts under the car, the air will be pulled by the exercise of the car, so when a car whizzing by, the paper and leaves on the ground will be rolled up.


In addition, the airflow under the car will produce a buoyancy force on the front end and engine compartment, weakening the downforce of the wheels on the ground and affecting the car's handling performance. In addition, a large portion of the fuel used to power the vehicle is consumed when it is burned to drive the machinery, and some of that power is used to overcome air resistance when the vehicle is moving at high speeds. Therefore, the significance of aerodynamics for car design is not only to improve the car's handling, but also a trick to reduce fuel consumption.


2. Components of the Automotive Powertrain


The automotive powertrain consists of the engine system and the transmission system.


components of the automotive powertrain


1. The engine assembly is composed of two major bodies and five major systems. The two major institutions are: including the crank rod mechanism, gas distribution mechanism; five systems are: starting system, lubrication system, fuel supply system, cooling system, ignition system! (Diesel engine consists of two major institutions and five major systems in addition to the ignition system).


2. The transmission assembly usually consists of the transmission body, transmission mechanism (gears, shafts and bearings), manipulation mechanism (gearshift, fork shaft, etc.) and locking device, the main reducer, differential and half-shaft, etc.


3. And the automatic transmission consists of the torque converter, planetary gear shifting mechanism, brake and clutch actuating element mechanism, hydraulic control mechanism, cooling system, main reducer and differential part, sensor and control computer, etc.


3. The Development of Automobile Power System


The main problem facing the engine is the balance between CO2 and cost and solving the problem of local environmental emissions of the car. Diesel engine technology focuses on solving exhaust pollutant emissions, mainly focusing on engine post-processor, temperature management and fine strategy.


There are two main trends in the future development of engines, one is high power and medium efficiency, and the other is high efficiency and medium power, with the former aiming to reach 200kw/l and the latter aiming to achieve a 45% thermal efficiency.


In order to cope with the future of research technology are pre-combustion chamber combustion, ultra-high injection pressure, etc. AVL and IAV have released the results of pre-combustion chamber combustion, AVL's research results show that the use of pre-combustion chamber combustion can make 2000rpm large load 50% combustion phase ahead of 8 ℃ A. After using 1000bar ultra-high injection pressure, compared with 350bar injection pressure, in different speed large Under different speed and load conditions, it can advance 50% of the combustion phase by 5-10℃A.


avl and iav

There is still room for further optimization of the conventional engine, which can further improve power and efficiency, and is also expected to achieve near zero emissions.

After hybridization, using the respective advantages of traditional power and new energy to achieve synergy, high system efficiency can be achieved.

New fuels make it possible for engines to achieve zero emissions and green cycles.

Future powertrains will be diverse, and so will the fuels, with electrification and synthetic fuels coexisting.

Due to the diversity of powertrains, more virtual worlds will be needed for development and validation.

Not only are the powertrains themselves changing, but so are the development methods and environments.


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