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The Development of Service-Oriented Gateway

Dec 22, 2022      View: 256

Under the trend of digital intelligence and autonomous driving, the car has become a mobile intelligent terminal, which has led to an exponential increase in in-vehicle data. The transmission, processing and mining of massive data require the support of a new generation of electrical and electronic architecture, and as the three core components of the new generation of automotive electrical and electronic architecture, intelligent cabin, autonomous driving and central gateway are being upgraded and evolved on the basis of SOA-oriented architecture to meet the growing demand.

 

The Development of the Gateway

 

service-oriented gateway

Time back to 1968, the Volkswagen 1600 car for the first time in the engine installed ECU (Electronic Control Unit, Electronic Control Unit), used to control fuel injection, this is the ECU first appeared in the car.

 

As cars evolved, more and more ECUs were used to achieve a richer range of functions. They both operate independently and interact with each other. Initially, each ECU had to be "single-wired" through a separate cable for information transfer between two ECUs. In order to improve the efficiency of information transfer between ECUs and reduce the number of cables needed, the CAN bus set up a "backbone" between ECUs, stringing all ECUs together and realizing the "car on the same track".

 

However, with the increasing number of ECUs, a "trunk road" becomes more and more overburdened, and in order to avoid "congestion", the ECUs of related functions are connected by a separate CAN main line, and then through the CAN gateway, a "traffic hub", to connect the ECUs to each other. In order to avoid "congestion", the ECUs of related functions are linked by a single CAN main line, and then all CAN main lines are linked together through the CAN gateway, a "traffic hub", to form a complete information "traffic network".

 

With the layout of functional domains such as intelligent cockpits and autonomous driving, higher requirements are placed on performance such as data transmission rate, stability, and response speed. Since CAN gateways cannot meet the demand, Ethernet gateways with larger bandwidths are being used. However, not all functions need to be realized by Ethernet gateway, so a new generation of hybrid gateways integrating CAN gateway and Ethernet gateway emerged. The three constitute the top three gateways in the market today.

 

With the upgrade of electrical and electronic architecture and the evolution of gateway technology solutions, gateways are gradually transitioning from the traditional hardware-centric model to a software-based, service-centric model. In the context of software-defined vehicles, gateways are no longer just taking on the function of communication routing, but are data interaction hubs for the entire vehicle network, providing seamless communication between vehicle networks, while allowing vehicles connected to the cloud to achieve continuous services such as vehicle OTA upgrades and application service updates.

 

The Role of the Gateway

 

service oriented gateway 1

The automotive gateway controller is a core component in the electrical and electronic architecture of the entire vehicle. As the data interaction hub of the entire vehicle network, it can route CAN, LIN, MOST, FlexRay and other network data in different networks.

 

1. Role: The network nodes inside the car are like a site, sending information from one network to another, and the site that needs to be interchanged is the "gateway". Different types of networks transmit data and interact with each other through gateways. Independent gateway and new intelligent gateway with its high speed, multi-channel, security and other high-end performance in this automotive era of change to play a vital role.

 

2. Work content: Automotive gateways undertake the work of protocol conversion between different bus types and participate in the network management of each network segment; control the routing timing by routing signals and messages according to the actual demand. The gateway is also the vehicle node that interfaces directly with OBD, responsible for the forwarding and control of diagnostic messages of the whole vehicle, and at the same time undertakes the defense of potential risks of the outside world to the network in the vehicle.

 

Attack of the Service-Oriented Gateway

 

Unlike traditional gateways for communication routing, service-oriented gateways are user-facing, demand-oriented scenarios, and intelligent services that "fine-tune" data, including both immediate planning and decision-making for local data, as well as transporting calculated data to the cloud for interaction.

 

At the same time, the service-oriented gateway can also serve as a security firewall for smart connected cars, helping to significantly reduce the risk of network attacks and maximize the protection of driving, usage and information security.

 

Based on the upgrade and replacement of existing automotive gateways and the drive of automotive digital intelligence, it is expected that the demand for automotive gateways will see rapid growth in the next few years. According to the relevant institutions, in 2025, the domestic automotive gateway only stock replacement market size will reach 15 billion yuan.

 

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