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What is the Power Controller

Jan 06, 2023      View: 622

The function of the motor controller is to convert the electric energy stored in the power battery into the electric energy required to drive the motor according to the gear position, accelerator, brake and other commands, so as to control the starting operation, forward and backward speed, climbing force and other driving states of the electric vehicle. Or it will help electric vehicles brake and store part of the braking energy in the traction battery.


Definition of Power Controller


Definition: In terms of definition, according to GB/T18488.1-2015 "Drive Motor System for Electric Vehicles Part 1: Technical Conditions", motor controller: a device that controls the energy transmission between the power supply and the drive motor, controlled by the signal interface circuit , drive motor control circuit and drive circuit.


Function: In terms of function, the new energy electric vehicle controller converts the direct current of the new energy electric vehicle power battery into the alternating current of the driving motor, communicates with the vehicle controller through the communication system, and controls the speed and power required by the vehicle.


The Appearance of the Power Controller


From the appearance, the motor controller is an aluminum box, a low-voltage connector, a high-voltage bus connector composed of two holes, and a three-phase connector connected to the motor with three holes (the all-in-one connector does not have three phase connector), one or more breather valves and two water channel inlet and outlet.


There are generally two covers on the aluminum box, one of which is a large cover and the other is a wiring cover. The large cover can fully open the controller, and the wiring cover is used to connect the controller bus connector and three-phase connector use.


Example: Audi e-Tron 3-in-1 powertrain


audi e-tron

Take the Audi e-Tron three-in-one powertrain as an example: 1 is a low-voltage connector, 2 is a high-voltage bus connector interface, and 3 is a waterproof and breathable valve.


Low-voltage connector: including the low-voltage power supply and low-voltage signal of the motor controller: low-voltage power supply, 12V is commonly used for passenger cars, and 24V is commonly used for commercial vehicles, connected to the small battery of the vehicle;


CAN signal, including vehicle CAN and internal CAN network , generally has two or more; resolver signal: connected to the resolver of the motor, responsible for detecting the speed of the motor, the resolver is installed at the end of the motor; some DI and DO are reserved according to different customer needs.


High-voltage busbar connector: connected to the power battery.


Waterproof and breathable valve: prevent the formation of water vapor and condensation in the controller.


The Internal Structure of Power Controller


The interior mainly includes: three-phase copper bar, bus bar copper bar, copper bar support frame, three-phase and bus bar wiring bracket, EMC filter board, bus capacitor, control board, driver board, adapter board, IGBT, current sensor, EMC magnetic ring and discharge resistors, etc.


Three-phase copper bar, bus bar copper bar, copper bar support frame, three-phase and bus bar wiring bracket, EMC magnetic ring and EMC filter board: now more three-phase copper bar, bus bar copper bar, copper bar support frame, three-phase It forms a module with the busbar wiring bracket, EMC magnetic ring and EMC filter board, which is conducive to automated production, and can improve the assembly progress of workers even without an automated production line.


Bus capacitor, control board, driver board, adapter board, IGBT and discharge resistor: Some motor controllers combine the control board, driver board, adapter board and discharge resistor together, or make the adapter board and the control board One board, such as Tesla Model3, has only one board for the entire electronic control.


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