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What is ADAS in Cars

Jul 25, 2023      View: 423

Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are a revolutionary set of electronic technologies integrated into vehicles to assist and support drivers during their journeys. These systems utilize cutting-edge sensors, cameras, radars, and other innovative components to enhance safety, optimize driving performance, and provide an overall improved driving experience. ADAS goes beyond traditional passive safety features like airbags and seatbelts by actively intervening to prevent accidents and reduce the severity of collisions.

The advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) is to install a variety of sensors (such as millimeter wave radar, lidar, single/binocular camera and satellite navigation) on the vehicle to perceive the surrounding environment in real time during the driving process of the car, and collect data for the identification, detection and tracking of static and dynamic objects. At the same time, the system combines navigation map data to perform complex calculations and analysis, enabling drivers to detect potential dangerous situations in advance, thereby effectively improving the comfort and safety of driving.


Types of ADAS Technologies

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

During the vehicle's driving process, the front-mounted vehicle distance sensor (radar/camera) continuously scans the road ahead, while the wheel speed sensor collects the vehicle speed signal. When the distance to the vehicle in front becomes too small, the ACC control unit can apply appropriate braking to the wheels and reduce engine output power by coordinating with the brake anti-lock braking system and engine control system, ensuring a safe distance is maintained between the vehicle and the one in front.


Around View Monitoring (AVM)

AVM utilizes multiple super wide-angle fisheye lenses (usually four) to capture images, and through special algorithms, corrects distortions and stitches the images together to create a panoramic view around the vehicle. This system is commonly used in vehicles to eliminate blind spots and facilitate panoramic parking, promoting safe driving.


Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB)

The AEB system uses radar to measure the distance to the vehicle in front or obstacles. A data analysis module then compares the measured distance with the warning distance and safety distance. When the distance is less than the warning distance, an alarm is triggered. If the distance is less than the safety distance and the driver does not apply the brakes in time, the AEB system initiates automatic braking, providing a safety measure for the vehicle.


Forward Collision Warning (FCW)

FCW also utilizes camera sensors and compares the shape of the rear of the vehicle in front with the shape in a database. The matching algorithm calculates the time distance to a possible collision and sends an advance warning to the driver. Unlike AEB, the FCW system does not apply braking measures or control the vehicle, distinguishing it from AEB.


Lane Departure Warning (LDW)

The LDW system comprises a HUD head-up display, a camera, a controller, and a sensor. When the system is activated, the camera (usually installed on the side of the vehicle body or near the rearview mirror) continuously detects the lane markings and processes the images to determine the vehicle's position within the lane. If the driver activates the turn signal for a lane change, the LDW system does not issue any alerts.


Blind Spot Detection (BSD)

The BSD system employs collision radar, Doppler radar, infrared radar, and other sensors positioned around the vehicle. Controlled by a computer, it provides the driver with timely sound and light information (such as flickering lights on the side-view mirrors) during dangerous situations like overtaking, reversing, lane changes, heavy fog, and rain. The system can also take automatic measures to effectively prevent accidents.


Automatic Parking Assistance (APA)

The APA system uses cameras, ultrasonic sensors, and infrared sensors to detect parking positions and create a parking map for the vehicle.


Lane Keep Assistance (LKA)

The LKA system recognizes the vehicle's position relative to the center of the lane using environment perception sensors. If the driver unintentionally deviates from the lane, the system issues a warning or automatically intervenes to steer the vehicle back into the lane.


Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR)

Using camera sensors, TSR detects and recognizes traffic signs, including speed limit requirements, and promptly notifies the driver if the speed limit is exceeded. A similar system is Road Sign Recognition (RSR).


Remote Summon

Tesla's "Smart Summon" allows the car to navigate complex environments and parking spaces, maneuvering around obstacles to reach the driver.


Night Vision (NV)

The car night vision system employs infrared technology to enhance visibility in the dark, making it appear as if driving during daylight. It consists of an infrared camera and a light display system on the windshield.


Pedestrian Detection System (PDS)

During vehicle operation, the camera, radar, and lidar sensors can detect pedestrians on all sides and control the vehicle's speed within a safe distance.

As market demand intensifies, ADAS technology has developed rapidly in recent years. Subtle differences in technology nomenclature may exist among various vehicle manufacturers and suppliers. Additionally, there may be considerable correlation between different technologies, such as parking assistance, panoramic parking, and automatic parking, as well as lane keeping (LDW) and lane departure prevention (LKA).

ADAS Information Assistance Technologies

ADAS Control Assistance Technologies

Future of ADAS

Scope of Application

In the past, ADAS could be considered as a "cutting-edge" technology mainly limited to the high-end car market. However, in recent years, one of the most significant features of ADAS development is its gradual penetration into the mid and low-end car markets, with some entry-level car models also equipped with partial ADAS functionalities. This phenomenon is not limited to China but also extends to international markets, including Europe, North America, and Japan. The main reasons for this trend are the progressive maturity of ADAS technology and the reduction in product costs. According to data from the Institute of High-Intelligent Automotive Research, from January to May this year, among the cumulative sales of over 50,000 vehicles in China, the ADAS front-loading adoption rate reached 45.96% for economical cars, and for luxury brands, the adoption rate was even higher, reaching 80.3%.


Function Segmentation

Analyzing the ADAS function adoption rate among all vehicles currently available for sale, more than half of them are equipped with Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), 360-degree Surround View and Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) / Forward Collision Warning (FCW) functions. However, the adoption rate of Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) and Automated Parking Assist (APA) functions is relatively lower, with only over 20% of the vehicles being equipped with these features.


Core Technologies

In the domestic market, the integration of ADAS system products is mainly controlled by several leading automotive Tier1 suppliers, ranked by market share from high to low, they are Bosch, Continental, APTIV, DENSO, ZF, and Veoneer (Autoliv). These companies belong to the first echelon of ADAS system providers and collectively control more than 90% of the market. Due to the immense growth potential of the ADAS market, many internet technology companies and startups have also entered the competition. The active involvement of local suppliers will be a significant focus in the high-speed development process of the ADAS market.


Future Prospects of ADAS

Driven by policies, cross-industry competition, and inherent consumer demands, the penetration rate of ADAS will rapidly increase. According to predictions from the Society of Automotive Engineers of China, by the year 2020, the domestic ADAS market penetration rate will reach 40%. Currently, the ADAS market in China is valued at approximately 60 billion yuan, and the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the next five years is estimated to exceed 37%. It is expected that by 2023, the domestic ADAS market will reach 120 billion yuan, with the original equipment market accounting for about 95 billion yuan and the aftermarket reaching about 25 billion yuan. With continuous technological advancements and growing market demands, ADAS will continue to play a vital role in the automotive industry, providing drivers with safer and more convenient driving experiences.


Final Words

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) play a crucial role in modern cars, revolutionizing the way we drive and enhancing overall safety on the roads. By utilizing advanced technologies such as sensors, cameras, and radars, ADAS continuously monitors the vehicle's surroundings and assists the driver in various ways, from collision avoidance to parking assistance. This technology has become an essential feature in contemporary vehicles, offering drivers valuable support and reducing the risk of accidents.

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